Gerbera daisies are plants with bright, large, and colorful flowers. In warmer climates, gerbera daisies can be grown in the garden as perennials, but in cooler climates they’re grown outdoors as annuals. Gerbera daisies also grow well in containers. This is convenient because you can bring the flowers in when it gets too cold. The trick with caring for gerbera daisies is providing the right amount of water for them to flourish.
EditGerminating the Seeds
- Aim to start the seeds indoors in early spring. Gerbera daisies can’t be planted outside until the frost is done and the soil has started to warm. To give the seedlings a head start, you can start the seeds inside before that so they’ll be ready for transplanting in late spring or early summer.
- Starting the seeds indoors early will also help to ensure that you get blooms this growing season.
- Fill a seed tray with a seed starting mix. Seed starting mix is a soilless potting mix that’s lighter than typical potting soil, so it’s better for germinating seeds. When the tray has been filled, use a spray bottle to moisten the mix in each cell. You can also make your own seed starting medium by combining equal parts:
- Peat moss
- Plant the seeds. Use the sharpened tip of a pencil or a toothpick to poke a hole in the center of the medium in each seed cell. The hole should be about deep. Drop a seed in each hole with the pointed end facing down. The top of the seed should be just below the soil line. Pack the medium around the hole to cover the seed.
- Water the seeds. Use a mister or small watering can to moisten the potting medium and help settle the seeds. As the seeds germinate, water as necessary to keep the soil slightly moist but not soggy.
- Cover the tray with plastic. You can place a seed starter dome over the tray, or use a sheet of plastic wrap to cover the top. This will keep the seeds warm and keep moisture in the soil as the seeds germinate. You can remove the plastic in 2 to 3 weeks once the seeds have sprouted.
- You won’t have to water as often when the plastic is on the tray, but may have to water daily to keep the medium moist once the plastic comes off.
- Place the seeds somewhere bright. Choose a bright windowsill or other area where the seeds will get about 8 hour of indirect light every day. The bright light and plastic will also keep the seeds warm and encourage germination.
EditTransplanting Gerbera Daisies to the Garden
- Wait for the daisies to develop two sets of leaves. After the seeds have germinated, the gerbera daisy seedlings will continue to grow. The seedlings aren’t ready to be transplanted outside until they’ve grown two sets of leaves (four leaves in total), and the soil has started to warm in the late spring or early summer.
- Even if the seedlings have two sets of leaves, don’t transplant them until the threat of frost has past.
- Choose a location with morning sun and afternoon shade. Gerbera daisies are native to South Africa, so they don’t tend to like temperatures above . Because of this, it’s important to keep them out of the hot afternoon sun. They also like a lot of light, so the ideal location is somewhere that’s bright and sunny in the morning but protected from direct sun in the afternoon.
- Amend the soil with compost. Gerbera daisies are particularly susceptible to rot if they’re exposed to too much moisture. You can help improve soil drainage by tilling of compost into the garden bed before planting. This will also enrich the soil and encourage better blooms.
- Instead of compost, you can use peat or some other organic material.
- In areas with soil that has a very high clay content, consider amending the soil with sand as well to improve drainage. Otherwise, you can plant the daisies in containers.
- Dig holes for the seedlings. Use your hand or a spade to dig holes that are just deep and wide enough for the root ball. If you plant the daisies too deep in the soil, the crowns will rot. The holes should be spaced apart to allow adequate airflow between the plants.
- Plant the daisies in the soil. Gently remove the seedlings from the seed trays and place one seedling in each hole. Cover the root ball with soil and use your hands to gently firm the soil around the roots to secure the seedling in place.
- Water the seedlings thoroughly to set them in the soil. Water the soil around the seedlings to avoid getting the plants wet. As the plants grow, water them deeply once a week to keep the soil evenly moist but not soggy. Avoid getting water on the blooms or leaves, as this can lead to rot.
- Always water gerbera daisies in the morning so excess water will dry during the day.
- Fertilize the daisies monthly. It takes a great deal of energy to produce large and beautiful flowers, and you can help the daisies by providing regular nutrients. Once a month during spring, summer, and early fall, add an all-purpose liquid fertilizer to the water before watering the plants.
- Remove dead flowers to encourage new blooms. As the flowers bloom, watch them carefully so that you can snip them off as they start to wilt. Use sterilized garden shears to trim off dying flowers and leaves. This will encourage the plant to grow more flowers.
- To keep from having to remove spent blooms, you can instead cut blooms when they’re fresh and bring them indoors. If you keep the flowers in water, they should last for several days.
EditGrowing Potted Gerbera Daisies Indoors
- Choose a container with good drainage. The most important thing when growing gerbera daisies in pots is to choose a container with lots of drainage holes. Choose the smallest pot possible so you can easily move the plant outside as the weather allows. Growing gerbera daisies in pots is ideal if you:
- Live in a cooler climate with cold fall and winter months
- Live in a rainy climate where the plant will get too much water in the garden
- Live in a climate where the relative humidity is often over 65 percent
- Have high-clay soil that doesn’t drain well
- Fill the container with a light potting mix. The ideal soil for gerbera daisies is a well-draining and fertile soil, such as a potting mix with lots of peat, perlite, or vermiculite mixed in. Fill the container and then moisten the soil with water using a mister.
- Dig up the daisies from the garden. If you’re moving the plant from the garden to a container to overwinter it, use a spade to gently dig the soil around the roots to loosen them from the ground. When the root have been loosened, hold the plant by the base of the grow and gently lift it from the soil.
- Plant the daisy in the pot. Use a spade to dig a hole in the soil. The hole should be just large enough to accommodate the root ball. Transplant the daisy from the garden or the seed tray (if you’re moving seedlings directly into pots) to the container and cover the roots with soil. Use your hands to gently pack the soil around the roots.
- Water the plant every 3 to 5 days. Gerbera daisies like soil that’s evenly moist but never soggy or wet. A good test is to stick your finger into the soil. If the soil feels dry, water the plant thoroughly. Otherwise, leave it for another day or two.
- Gerbera daisies tend to need less water during the winter months, but never let the soil dry out completely.
- Place the pot where it will get morning sun. The ideal temperature for gerbera daisies is around , so you don’t want them in direct afternoon sun. To provide them with enough light, find a window that gets lots of direct morning sun, but that’s shaded in the afternoon and only gets indirect light later in the day.
- In the warmer months during spring and summer, you can leave the potted gerbera daisy outside in an area with similar lighting conditions.
- Fertilize the plant monthly during growing periods. The plants will need additional nutrients in spring and summer when they’re actively growing and producing flowers. Every 30 days, dissolve a 15-5-15 fertilizer in the water before watering the plant to feed the daisies.
- Deadhead old blooms. When the flowers on the plant start to wilt and die, remove them with clean gardening shears. This will redirect the plant’s energy and encourage new flowers. You should also trim off dead leaves and foliage as they begin to wilt and brown.
- Gerbera daisies are also known as Barberton or Transvaal daisies.
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Tartar is a hard mineral that builds up when plaque is not removed from your teeth. It can only be removed with dental cleaning, so it is best to avoid its build up in the first place. To prevent tartar, you should practice good dental hygiene. This means removing plaque quickly by brushing and flossing regularly and having regular dental cleanings. With thorough preventative care, your teeth can stay healthy and tartar free for years to come.
EditPracticing Good Oral Hygiene
- Brush your teeth at least twice a day. In order to remove plaque from your teeth, and in turn prevent tartar from developing, it’s important to brush your teeth. Brushing twice a day is recommended to keep plaque and tartar at bay.
- Typically, you should brush your teeth in the morning when you get up and in the evening before you go to bed. However, pick a brushing schedule that works for you and stick to it.
- Floss every day. Tartar can build up between your teeth if you do not remove food that builds up there. By flossing once every day you will remove the substances that cause plaque and tartar.
- When flossing, slide the floss gently between each of your teeth. Move the floss around between the teeth to remove any debris between them. Then pull the floss out with a sawing motion.
- Sugars and starches that build up between your teeth are especially capable of developing into plaque and tartar. If you have been eating sugar or starch, consider flossing right after eating.
- Use plaque-removing mouthwash. There are some mouthwashes that are formulated to help remove plaque from the teeth. They typically help loosen plaque so that your brushing and flossing is more effective. Using one of these mouthwashes once a day in combination with brushing and flossing can improve your dental health and prevent tartar.
- Use your mouthwash after you brush and floss in order to rinse away any left over debris.
- Look at the label on your mouthwash and make sure that it has antibacterial properties designed to fight plaque. Good mouthwashes typically have a seal of approval from a professional dental organization, such as the American Dental Association.
- Avoid foods that are bad for your teeth. In order to prevent the buildup of plaque you should avoid eating foods that promote its growth. These include sugary and starchy foods, such as candy, soda, and bread.
- If you do eat these foods, brush your teeth after eating them. However, if you don’t have access to a toothbrush and toothpaste right away, be sure to drink a lot of water to rinse these foods off your teeth.
EditRemoving Plaque Effectively
- Use the right toothbrush. If you want to get rid of plaque and prevent tartar, you need to use an effective toothbrush. Use a soft-bristled brush so that the plaque is removed but the gums and enamel of the teeth are not damaged.
- The bristles of the toothbrush should be rounded. This also protects your enamel and gums from damage.
- Use a tartar control toothpaste. There are many toothpastes to choose from but you should make sure to get one labeled for tartar control. These toothpastes have a built-in mild abrasive that can remove plaque from the surface of your teeth.
- If you have sensitive teeth, make sure to get a toothpaste that is labeled for tarter control and sensitive teeth.
- Brush at a 45° angle with short strokes. In order to remove plaque from below the gum line, angle your tooth brush correctly. By holding your brush at a 45° angle, you will get some of the bristles down below the top of the gums.
- Use short, gentle, and circular movements when brushing. This will be most effective for removing plaque and food debris.
- Brush all of your teeth thoroughly. Spend time cleaning every tooth. If you are taking the time to clean them all, your total brushing time should be about 2 minutes.
- It is important to clean all sides of your teeth. Take time to clean the inside, outside and top surfaces of your teeth.
EditHaving Your Teeth Professionally Cleaned
- Schedule regular cleanings. To keep your teeth tartar free, you should have your teeth cleaned in a dental office on a regular basis. Be sure to schedule your cleanings in advance so you actually get them done on a regular basis.
- While many dental professionals recommend 2 cleanings per year, the actual number you need may vary. Talk to your dentist about how often you should get cleanings based on any risk factors or dental issues you have.
- Contact your dental office if you suspect something is wrong with your teeth. If you are having pain or irritation in your mouth, it could be the sign of a problem that needs treatment. Contact your dentist and schedule an appointment to have your teeth looked at and treated.
- Have your teeth inspected. First, the dental hygienist will look inside your mouth and assess your teeth. They will look over all your teeth and look for signs of plaque and tartar build up.
- The hygienist will also look for signs of other dental problems, such as gingivitis.
- Have your teeth cleaned. When you have your teeth cleaned by a hygienist, they will likely begin by manually removing plaque and tartar. To do this, they will use a metal pick called a scaler. The hygienist will then continue the cleaning by brushing your teeth with a gritty toothpaste. This will remove any remaining plaque and tartar on your teeth.
- The gritty toothpaste that is used in dental offices gives your teeth a shiny polish, but it should only be used twice a year. Using this type of toothpaste more often can damage the enamel surface of your teeth.
- Get an ultrasonic cleaning. After your dental hygienist gives your teeth a general cleaning, you may need more advanced care. If plaque and tartar have built up significantly, your hygienist may clean it away with an ultrasonic cleaner. This uses vibrations and water to clean off large chunks of tartar.
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When moving, it is important to pack your belongings securely. Your TV is an item that needs special attention during packing because it is fragile. You need to prepare it properly and use the right materials to protect it, including cushioning and cardboard. With some care, your TV can be packed and transported to its new home safely.
EditPreparing Your TV for Packing
- Remove any accessories and cords. When getting your TV ready to be packed, you should first unplug the TV and remove the power cord from the TV, if possible. Then remove the cords that attach any accessories, such as streaming devices or DVD players. Coil them up and tie the coil together with a rope or ribbon.
- Leaving cords attached to your TV can cause the cords or the cord attachment points on the TV to be damage during moving.
- If you have a lot of components and cables, it’s a good idea to label them before you pack them. Put a piece of tape around the cord and write what the cord is used for on the tape. This will make it easier to put your TV system back together once your move is over.
- Put the cords in a separate box or in the box you are using to pack up your components. Putting them in the same box as the TV could damage it if they move around.
- Wrap up attached cords. If there are cords that can’t be detached from the TV, you should wrap them up neatly. You don’t have to wrap up the cords all the way to the TV. You simply need to wrap up the majority of the cord so it can be contained and won’t be a tripping hazard while you are packing up the TV.
- Clean your TV with a microfiber cloth. Take the time to clean all the dust and debris off of your TV before you pack it up. Not only will this help keep you clean as you move the TV, dust and dirt left on the screen could scratch it while shifting during moving.
- Unmount your TV. If your TV is mounted on a wall, it needs to be taken down. Typically, you will first detach the TV from the bracket and then take the bracket off the wall after the TV is removed. Look at the instructions for the mounting bracket if you are unsure about how to detach the TV.
- If your TV is large, it’s a good idea to have someone help you take it down. Even if the TV is relatively light, a large TV can be awkward to handle by yourself.
- If your TV sits on a base, this should also be detached from the TV in order to pack it effectively. This typically requires the use of a screwdriver.
EditPutting Your TV in its Original Packaging
- Keep all packaging when you purchase your TV. When you purchase a new TV, it’s a good idea to keep all of its packaging so you can use it for future moves. A TV’s packaging is specially made to protect it, so using the original packaging is the easiest and most effective way to protect it during a move.
- Place protective cushioning on the TV. Remove all of the protective packaging inside the box and put it back on your TV. The packaging was made specifically for your TV, so it should fit perfectly.
- You may have to play around with the foam or cardboard protective pieces that cushion the TV. Take your time and just make sure that they are placed on the TV correctly.
- Put the TV in the box. Slide the TV into the box and make sure it is placed correctly. If it is, it should not move around much when the box is closed. Once the box is closed up, seal it with tape.
- Some TV boxes can be closed with tabs and do not need to be taped shut. However, without tape, there is always a chance of the TV coming out of the box on accident.
EditWrapping a TV in Packing Materials
- Collect soft wrapping materials. Collect a variety of soft wrapping materials you can use to pad the TV. These can include bubble wrap, newspaper, and moving blankets.
- In many cases, you can use materials that you are already going to move, such as blankets, clothes, and other linens. They can pad your TV and get moved in the process, and then you don’t have to spend extra money buying additional packing materials.
- Wrap the whole TV in cushioning. Wrap the TV in the soft packing materials you have found. Once the whole TV is totally wrapped, tape the padding in place. Wrapping the entire TV before taping ensures that the tape does not get on the TV, which could damage the screen.
- Place heavier protection over the face of the TV. Once you have cushioned the face of the TV, it’s a good idea to put a harder layer of protection on top of the cushioning. Use a piece of cardboard or thin plywood to protect the face of the TV. Measure the size of the entire front of the TV. Then cut the cardboard to size and tape it on the TV by wrapping tape all the way around it.
- If you have a large TV, you may need to use several pieces of cardboard to cover the face of the TV.
- You can use the cardboard from a flattened moving box or any spare plywood you have around.
- If you can, construct a makeshift box out of pieces of cardboard. This will protect the TV more effectively than just protecting the front of it.
- Move the TV carefully. If you haven’t put your TV in a secure box, you need to be careful when moving it. Make sure that it is in a very protected spot in your moving truck, such as next to a mattress or other soft surface.
- You may even want to take the TV and move it in your own car. Taking it in the back seat of your car will help ensure that it gets to its destination safely.
EditUsing a TV Packing Kit
- Purchase a packing kit. If you do not have the original packaging for your TV, you can buy a packing kit that is specially made for packing TVs. These are available from most moving companies and at many home improvement stores.
- Packing kits typically include a box that can hold TVs in a range of sizes. Look at the packaging before you buy the kit to make sure your TV will fit in it.
- Kits should include a box and corner cushioning for the TV. They may also include padding, such as bubble wrap.
- Read the directions included. Each type of packing kit will have slightly different directions. Read your kit’s directions before starting packing and follow them in order to protect your TV from damage.
- Wrap the TV in padding. It is a good idea to wrap your TV in a protective layer before putting it in a box. This protective layer can consist of soft padding, such as a thin blanket, or packing material, such as bubble wrap.
- Use a thin layer of padding before putting the corner protectors on so you can be sure that they will fit over the padding.
- Place corner protectors on the TV. Your packing kit should come with corner protectors that fit over the corners of your TV. There will be 4 included and they should be adjustable to fit a variety of sizes of TVs. Follow the directions for how to put them on your TV.
- Put the TV in the box. Once the corner protectors are in place you should slide your TV into its box. Many packing kits come with a 2-part box in order to fit a variety of sizes of TVs. Place your TV in 1 box piece and then slide the second piece on over the first.
- Fill empty space with cushioning. Because packing kits are made to fit many different TVs, there may be a lot of empty space in the box. Try filling this space with packing material, such as newspaper or bubble wrap, to ensure that your TV is kept secure.
- If there is a lot of extra space, try using a moving blanket or small cushion to fill up the space.
- Tape the packaging closed. Once your TV is properly packed, you can seal up the box. Make sure the box is thoroughly taped so that the box will stay intact even if it is moved around and jostled in transit.
- When the TV is put in the moving truck or container, make sure that it is placed bottom down. It should not be placed face or back down. Also, keep heavy items off of the box.
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Freshwater aquarium plants are a beautiful addition to your home and provide several benefits for your fish. Living plants will remove nitrates from the water, improving the quality of the water and reducing algae growth. They also boost the oxygen levels in the tank and provide fish with fun places to hide. Growing freshwater plants in your aquarium is a fun and easy hobby that will delight both you and your fish.
EditChoosing the Right Plants
- Select common, easy to grow freshwater plants. Freshwater plants have different lighting requirements and can sometimes be difficult to maintain. Luckily, there are some easy options for beginners that will create the look you want in your aquarium. Look for plants that are labeled as Echinoderms, Lilaeopsis, Anarchies, or Anubis.
- Good options for tall plants include Amazon Sword and Java Fern. Amazon Sword grows quickly and easily, providing great cover for your wiring and filter system if it’s visible from behind your tank. Java Fern has long leaves and provides good protection for fish.
- For medium-sized plants, great choices include Anubias Nana and Dwarf Sagittaria. Anubias Nana has curved stems with rounded leaves. Dwarf Sagittaria has long green leaves with curved blades and grows well around hard tank decorations like stone figurines.
- Use mosses to decorate along the bottom and front of the tank. Easy to grow freshwater mosses include Java Moss, Willow Moss, and Water Wisteria. Moss is a low-growing plant, so you can put it in the front of your tank without obscuring other plants. It also helps keep your tank clean. Moss grows quickly, so you will see fast results with this plant.
- Moss grows best with medium to bright light.
- Mosses are often edible for fish. You will still need to feed your fish, however. Not all fish will eat the moss.
- Another great option for the bottom and forefront of your tank is a plant called dwarf baby tears. This lush, leafy plant grows quickly like moss but it has a more shrub-like appearance. This plant grows best in bright light.
- Purchase full grown plants if you want a finished look right away. Full grown plants are more expensive, but they are the easiest way to get the look you want immediately. Choose plants that have started to bud and have white roots.
- Inspect the plants to make sure that they are free of snails, shrimp, and algae.
- You can buy aquarium plants at a local pet shop or aquarium store. You can also find them online.
- Research the seller before you make a purchase to ensure that they have a reputation for clean, healthy plants.
- Grow your plants from cuttings if you want a less expensive option. While it will take longer for your final look to develop, cuttings are more economical. To grow them, you will need to acquire cuttings from an existing plant, which are sold through most aquarium stores and online. Locate the lowest stem node on your cutting, then remove the leaves below it. Plant the stem in the substrate so that it will take root.
- You may also be able to acquire a cutting from someone you know who owns an aquarium.
- Create visual interest by using various sized plants. Layering your plants will make your tank more attractive. Background plants should be larger, while medium-sized plants can be placed in the middle of the aquarium or along the sides. You can decorate the front of your aquarium with a carpeting plant, like moss or dwarf baby tears.
- Plants range from small plants up to plants that fill the tank.
- Add figurines, rocks, and driftwood for a more interesting look. They will also provide a great place to tie down plants that do not need to be buried.
EditSetting Up Your Aquarium
- Purchase and install lighting to support plant growth. Just like other plants, your aquarium plants will need light to stay alive. Light is needed for plants to undergo photosynthesis, which gives them their energy and nutrients. Check the light needs of your individual plants, as they can vary from plant to plant. Full-spectrum fluorescent and LED tank lights are both great options. Plants can also get some light from nearby windows.
- Some plants require a lot of extra light, so do your research before you make a selection.
- It’s recommended that when you start out, stick to less than 2.5 fluorescent watts per gallon unless you put a carbon dioxide system in place.
- Quarantine and treat new plants before adding them to your tank. New plants may already harbor pests like snails or shrimp that can threaten the health of your aquarium. Snails and shrimp can breed quickly and fill your tank, unless you have fish that feed on them. Additionally, they can introduce bacteria or diseases to the water. A quarantine will allow you to spot pests before they get in your tank. You can also treat your plants with a bleach solution.
- To treat with bleach, mix 1 part bleach into 19 parts water. Dip your plants for 2 to 3 minutes, depending on how sensitive your plants are. Thoroughly rinse the plants in fresh water before placing them in dechlorinated water.
- To prevent snail infestations, dip your plants into saltwater after purchase. Mix of aquarium or kosher salt into of water. Dip the plants for 15-20 seconds, keeping the roots above water. Be sure to rinse them off with clean fresh water before placing them in the tank.
- After a week of quarantine, place them in the aquarium.
- Add a plant-friendly substrate to the tank and cover it with gravel. Your substrate is the material you use to cover the bottom of the tank. When you’re growing plants, you need a nutrient-rich substrate, which can initially be a bit more expensive. The substrates that are good for planting also tend to cloud the water when they’re disturbed, but you can stop this by applying a thin layer of gravel over it.
- Seachem Flourite contains all of the necessary nutrients and comes in a variety of colors.
- Clays and laterite are good options for nutrients and can be less expensive. However, they often take more time to settle in the tank.
- Aqua Soil has good nutrients for plants but drops the pH of the water to 7. While this is optimal for plants, it can harm some fish. Check the pH requirements of your fish before choosing this substrate.
- Gravel alone will not nourish your plants.
- Anchor the plants that need to be in the substrate so they get nutrients. Some plants need to be rooted in the substrate in order to absorb needed nutrients. Place the roots of these plants just under the substrate, but don’t bury them deep because this can cover the rhizome of the plant, which is a thick green part above the roots. Covering the rhizome can cause the entire plant to die.
- Make sure that you do not anchor one plant on top of another.
- Tie the remaining plants to rocks or wood so that they can root. Some plants, like moss, Java Fern, or Anubias Nana prefer to root into rock or wood. The plants will then take root on the rock or wood. Wrap fishing line gently around the plant, then loop the line around the rock or wood. Tie the fishing line in place, then add the rock and plant to your tank.
- Driftwood and lava rock are great options for tying down plants.
- Add your fish after allowing a week for your tank to stabilize. Wait a week after establishing your plant garden before adding the fish. If you already own fish, you can leave them in a temporary aquarium. Otherwise, it’s best to wait until your tank is ready before acquiring your fish.
- Waste excreted by the fish will help feed your plants.
- Resist the urge to add your fish early. Your tank needs to go through a process called “cycling,” where the water conditions stabilize and become safe for fish. Very few fish can survive before the water conditions have stabilized.
EditCaring for Your Plants
- Prune plants that outgrow the tank so that they won’t decompose. Most plants grow quickly, so pruning will be a necessity. If the plant outgrows the tank, the part of the plant outside the cage will die. Use sharp scissors to carefully cut away the excess plant.
- As an alternative, you could choose slow-growing plants.
- Clean your water weekly to maintain the health of your tank. Plants do not need water changes as frequently as fish do, but regular changes will keep your aquarium healthy. First scrape any algae from the sides of your tank. Use a siphon to remove 10 to 15% of your water, paying special attention to the gravel and area around your aquarium fixtures. Replace the water you removed with fresh, dechlorinated water.
- When using your siphon, don’t use it in the plant bed or you could accidentally kill your plants. Instead, keep it above the substrate.
- Shrimp and catfish both feed on algae, so they could make a good addition to your tank, depending on the other fish you’ve chosen.
- This is also called changing your water. Some people like to clean the entire tank every few months, but this can upset your tank’s ecosystem. It’s better to use filters and maintain a clean tank.
- Add fertilizer to speed up the growth and keep plants healthy. Your freshwater aquarium does not need fertilizer, especially if you have fish, which help fertilize the plants with their waste. However, fertilizer can help your plants grow better and can be worth the extra effort. There are several ways to fertilize your aquarium plants:
- You can add fluorite directly into the substrate, which provides iron and nutrients for the plants.
- Root tabs are placed near the roots of the plants that need to be anchored beneath the substrate. They will continually fertilize your plants for 2 to 3 months.
- If you prefer a liquid fertilizer, you can add it to your tank once or twice a week. Liquid fertilizer is great for plants that are not rooted in the substrate, such as those tied to rocks.
- A CO2 pump provides the plants with more CO2, which they absorb and convert to oxygen. If you have a high-light tank, it’s good to include more CO2 because light speeds up photosynthesis, meaning that your plants will convert CO2 to oxygen more quickly.
- Avoid letting plants that are not fully submerged dry out. If the plants dry out, they will die. To keep them healthy, store your plants in a bucket of fresh water. This is a great option if you are growing additional plants for your aquarium(s).
- You can store the plants in the bucket indefinitely if they have clean water and proper lighting. Plants that must be rooted in the substrate will need to be anchored if they are stored long-term. When storing your plants, clean your water weekly.
- Start small and add plants slowly.
- If you have an algae problem, you could add glass or ghost shrimp, which eat algae. These freshwater shrimp get along great with tetras and guppies.
- Choose plants that are compatible with your fish, as some fish will eat or destroy them.
- Do not dispose of aquarium plants in local waterways or down the toilet. Many of them are non-native and can interfere with native plants. Instead, dry out any excess plants and dispose of them in the trash.
- If you keep crayfish, be aware that they will uproot and eat water plants.
EditThings You’ll Need
- Substrate fit for plants – silt, sand, clay
- Gravel (optional)
- Filtration system
- Freshwater plants
- Full-spectrum light source
- Freshwater fish
- Dechlorinated water
- Aquarium salt or kosher salt
- Fish net
- Algae scraper
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Creating an effective resume can be tricky, but it’s crucial for getting noticed by recruiters and hiring managers. Fortunately, there are some simple things you can do to make your resume more professional and marketable. Consider the perspective of recruiters and hiring managers as you’re making your resume. They like resumes that are skim-able, easy-to-understand, and tailored to the job they’re looking to fill. By keeping those things in mind, you can make a resume that improves your chances of finding a job.
EditTailoring Your Resume to the Job
- Read the job description carefully. Look for specific skills, kinds of experience, and keywords listed in the job ad and write them down. If there are any educational requirements, make sure you note those too. Then, when you’re making your resume, focus on including those things to show the recruiter you’re the right candidate for the job.
- Try copying and pasting the job description into a word cloud generator. Word cloud generators take all the words in a body of text and show you which words are the most common. If the generator tells you that the term “self-starter” appears a lot in the job ad, you’ll know to incorporate that skill into your resume.
- Tailor your resume to the job you’re applying for. Don’t use the same resume for every job you apply to. Recruiters want to see that you’re the right fit for the specific job they’re trying to fill. When you find a job you’re interested in, take the time to update your resume so it reflects the skills and experience the job ad is calling for.
- To save yourself time, have a “base” resume saved on your computer. Then, whenever you find a job you’re interested in, you can just tweak the base resume so it’s tailored to the job. Save your updated resume as a different file so you don’t lose your base resume.
- For example, if you’re applying for a job that calls for excellent customer service skills, you could take your base resume and move “customer service” to the top of your list of skills. You could also add more details to your descriptions for your previous jobs about how you excelled at customer service in those roles.
- Include keywords relevant to the job in your resume. Many companies use electronic tracking systems that look for specific keywords in applicant resumes. If you don’t use those keywords, your resume could be overlooked. To find out which keywords to use, search online for a list of keywords commonly used in the industry you’re applying to. Just search something like “resume keywords for financial advisor.”
- For example, recruiters looking to fill a financial position could be looking for keywords like “profit,” “accounting,” “budgeting,” and “compliance.”
- Choose the right kind of resume for the job you’re applying to. If you’re responding to a job ad that emphasizes work experience, use a chronological resume. If you’re applying for a job that requires a lot of specific skills, a functional resume may be a good choice. If the job description focuses on both experience and practical skills, use a combination resume to demonstrate that you have both.
- For example, if you’re applying to a job that requires 3 years of landscaping experience, make a chronological resume by listing your work history at the top of your resume, starting with your most recent job in landscaping.
- If you’re applying for an entry-level computer programming job where you need to know how to use a variety of computer programs, make a functional resume. At the top of your resume, list your experience working with the different computer programs, as opposed to your work history.
- If you’re applying for a graphic design job that requires 1 year of experience and experience using different design programs, make a combination resume. Start the resume with a list of your skills and experience working in graphic design programs, and follow that section with your employment history.
EditImproving the Content
- Add a 3-sentence summary to the top of your resume under your name. Describe who you are in the first sentence. Then, mention your goal or objective in the second sentence. Finish the summary with a sentence about why you’re a valuable candidate for the position. A 3-sentence summary will help recruiters quickly understand who you are and what you have to offer.
- For example, your 3-sentence summary could go something like “Writer with over 5 years experience at major publications. Looking to research and write about digital marketing trends. Brings solid understanding of editorial standards and a track record of meeting deadlines.”
- If you don’t have a lot of job experience or skills, leave the 3-sentence summary off of your resume.
- Include your most impressive achievements for each job. Instead of focusing on the responsibilities you had at your old jobs, focus on the things you accomplished at them instead. Ask yourself what your 2-3 best achievements were at each of your previous jobs and write them down. Then, include 1 or 2 of them after each job you have listed on your resume.
- For example, instead of writing “Was responsible for reorganizing shelves in company stockroom,” you could write “Implemented successful new organization system in company stockroom.”
- Quantify the achievements on your resume. That way they’ll be easier for recruiters to understand. Whenever you’re listing an achievement, try to attach a number or percentage to it. Don’t make it complicated and use too many numbers. Stick with one number or percentage per achievement.
- For example, instead of writing “Helped increase traffic to company website,” you could write “Increased traffic to company website by 45 percent.”
- Start your bullet points with action verbs. Action verbs imply that you took initiative and accomplished something, which will look good to recruiters. If any of the bullet points on your resume start with a phrase like “Responsible for” or “In charge of,” rephrase them so they start with an action verb.
- Some action verbs you could use on your resume are: arranged, delivered, assisted, created, formed, organized, produced, eliminated, lead, transformed, and developed.
EditTweaking the Formatting
- Use bullet points instead of paragraphs for your job descriptions. Paragraphs are harder to skim through than bullet points, so recruiters may not be seeing all the information you want them to see. If any of your job descriptions are written in paragraph form, break them up into several bullet points. Keep each bullet point between 1-2 sentences long.
- Shorten your resume if it’s longer than 1 page. To shorten your resume, make your writing more concise. Delete any unnecessary information, like dates and descriptions for jobs you had over 15 years ago. If you’re using a large font, make it smaller (but not so small that it’s hard to read). Recruiters like to skim resumes, and they’ll be more likely to look yours over if it’s only 1 page.
- Move your contact information to the top. Put it in bold font so it’s easy for recruiters to find. Make sure it includes your phone number, email address, city and zip code (you can leave out your full mailing address).
- Use a simple, black, size-12 font. Avoid colorful, crazy fonts that will distract from the content of your resume. Try to use the same font throughout your whole resume so it looks neat and polished.
- Make your headlines bold and slightly larger to help them stand out.
- Some simple fonts you can use for your resume are: Times New Roman, Georgie, Garamond, Arial, Century Gothic, Tahoma, and Bell MT.
- Use a resume-building software or app. Search online for “free resume builder.” There are also resume builders you can pay for to get access to more premium features. Once you find a software or app you like, input the information from your resume into the builder so it can help you organize it all in an effective way. Then, save the resume you made and use it to apply for jobs.
EditSources and Citations
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Anger is one of the most commonly experienced emotions. It can manifest in both healthy and unhealthy ways. Rage, however, is a more intense form of anger that is often associated with destructive, out of control behavior. If you’re enraged, you might explode and lash out at others or coldly withdraw and repress your emotions. Such behavior can ruin your professional and personal relationships, so deal with rage by finding healthy outlets for your anger, dealing with the source of the problem, and getting support from others.
EditLetting Go of Your Rage
- Take deep breaths. Deep breathing is a great exercise to make use of when you’re feeling rage. It allows you to slow down and regain control of your thoughts and emotions as well as the situation itself. Do several cycles of deep breathing until you feel calmer.
- Try pulling in deep breaths from your diaphragm. Inhale and watch your belly expand. Exhale and watch it deflate. With each inhale, imagine yourself being filled with calm energy. With each exhale, envision the rage being expelled from your body.
- Relieve tension with progressive muscle relaxation. Rage can cause extreme physical tension in your body, which can actually lead to injury. Progressive muscle relaxation is a useful exercise for easing this tension.
- Take deep, calming breaths. Start at your toes and work your way up through your body, gradually contracting and relaxing each muscle group. For instance, you might tense your toes up and notice what that feels like for a few seconds. Then, release the tension and notice what that feels like before moving to a new muscle group.
- This technique also helps you become more aware of the experience of holding tension in your body. In the future, when you feel that tension, you’ll know how to relax your muscles.
- Journal. Aggressive actions like punching, throwing something, or yelling don’t always lead to catharsis. Why? Because you haven’t actually addressed the thing that’s making you feel enraged. Writing in a journal is one of the best ways to do this.
- Start a rage journal in which you regularly jot down all the people or situations that rub you the wrong way. Describe everything in as much detail as you can.
- Once you’ve let off some steam, go back and re-read what you wrote. You might decide to go ahead and rip the paper to pieces. You might also decide to brainstorm some ways to actively problem-solve the situations that make you so angry.
EditActing on Your Rage Safely
- Scream out your frustration. Turning your anger inward can lead to serious health problems and letting it out by yelling at your loved ones can ruin your relationships. A better alternative is to let it out with a mighty scream.
- Get in your car and yell to the top of your lungs. Or, briefly shout into a pillow to let it all out.
- Throw or break something. Whether you’re feeling hot (lashing out and shouting) or cold (repressed and withdrawn) rage, a great way to release your anger is by destroying something–in an appropriate way, of course. Go to a “rage room,” if there’s one in your area.
- Rage rooms provide a safe environment for you to smash and throw things and burn off steam.
- If you can’t locate a rage room nearby, buy a stack of cheap plates at the dollar store, go to a contained area like a garage, and throw them at the wall. Feels good, huh?
- Have a go at a punching bag. Aggressive outlets aren’t the best way to channel your rage. Still, punching a bag is much more constructive than punching a wall or someone’s face. Go to a nearby gym and have a turn at the punching bag. Or, shadow box by punching the air in front of you.
- While you’re angry, avoid boxing with an actual human, as your anger may cause you to do more damage than intended.
EditFinding Practical Solutions
- Know your triggers. In order to truly deal with your rage you must be able to recognize what rage feels like and what situations tend to cause it. The next time you feel rage, take a moment to observe what’s happening in your body. Also, take note of what stimulated this feeling.
- For example, you notice you’ve clenched your jaw really tight and your head starts pounding. This occurred after you were cut off in traffic.
- Brainstorm solutions for triggering events. Deal with your rage by problem-solving ways you can avoid or better cope with your triggers. Create a specific plan of action that allows you to improve how you handle these situations.
- For instance, if terrible traffic leads to rage, head out early to avoid traffic.
- If flustered, over-worked cashiers tick you off, try to shop during quieter, off hours.
- If your roommate’s messy bedroom bugs you, avoid going in there so you can stay calm.
- Learn to say ‘no” when you’re overwhelmed or stressed. If you’re experiencing cold rage from having repressed your anger, you might benefit from some assertiveness training. Learn to speak up for yourself respectfully and with tact. If people are asking too much of you, say so.
- For instance, if your boss keeps dropping more work on your desk before you’ve finished your current projects, your temper may flare. Instead of holding it in, meet with your boss one-on-one and express your frustration. Say something like, “You’re giving me more work than I can handle right now. I’m trying to focus my efforts on the upcoming briefing. Can I delegate some of these assignments to Jenny?”
- Change your language. The words you use can impact your emotions. Strong, absolute words like “never” or “always” don’t leave any room for exceptions, so they hinder problem-solving. Drop these terms from your vocabulary and see if it has a positive effect on your mood.
- Tell people what you need using “I” statements. Rage can remove all filters in conversation to the point that you’re criticizing and insulting people right and left. To avoid this, assert yourself with specific “I” statements. This limits blaming and criticizing, but still helps you get your point across.
- For example, if you’re struggling to contain rage at an insensitive partner, express your needs with an “I” statement like, “I feel ignored and misunderstood when you minimize my anxiety.”
- Try therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, has been proven to help people with chronic anger issues. Your CBT therapist will work with your one-on-one to develop better strategies for dealing with anger, such as changing your thought patterns and learning to be more assertive.
- Ask your family physician for a referral if you would like to talk to a therapist.
- Join an anger management support group. Many communities offer special programs to teach anger management skills. You might learn practical skills in a group setting or share your unique struggles with rage with others. Programs may be offered by hospitals, clinics, or churches in your community.
- You might also connect with others who have rage issues online by searching for support groups on websites like Psychology Today.
- Consider if you have intermittent explosive disorder. IED is a behavioral disorder classified by extreme bouts of rage. These episodes may involve impulsive or violent acts that occur with little or no apparent trigger. IED is more common in younger people and males. See a psychologist or psychiatrist for an evaluation, if you regularly experience sudden bouts of rage.
- Treatment for intermittent explosive disorder typically includes a combination of medication and psychotherapy to help gain control of rage.
EditSources and Citations
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Trips abroad are incredible, often life-changing experiences that show you the world in a whole new light. Returning home after such a powerful journey can be difficult, but there are ways to make it easier. Taking care of your physical and mental health, connecting with your old life in meaningful ways, and keeping the spirit of your trip alive will help make your transition as smooth as possible.
EditAdjusting to your Old Home
- Set a proper sleep schedule to combat jet lag. After a long time abroad, a plane trip to a new time zone can be tricky to deal with. To make it easier, set a consistent time to be in bed each night and stick to it. Adjust it in 15-30 minute increments until you’re synced back up.
- If you have trouble falling asleep, put on some relaxing music, take a hot bath, or sit in a chair and read for a few minutes. Make sure to avoid digital distractions like phones and computers.
- Get outside and exercise. Regular exercise helps your body stay healthy when adjusting to a different environment. Doing it outside gives you a chance to adapt to the new climate and re-experience your old home. The more physical presence you have in a place, the easier it will be to become emotionally close to it.
- Good places to run include local trails, parks and, if you’re enrolled in school, the campus itself.
- Enjoy the things you missed while you were away. Visit your favorite local store, restaurant, or coffee shop. Take a hot shower, lavish sleeping in your own bed, and eat your favorite foods. Use these as tools to help you appreciate being home.
- Give yourself time to relax. From traffic signs, types of food, and social etiquette to the entire speed of life, school, and work, returning home can be an incredibly overwhelming experience. If you feel exhausted or frustrated, give yourself a day or two to relax on your own. Remember that adjusting to a new style of life takes time, so don’t worry if you make mistakes along the way.
- If your schedule doesn’t leave much time for relaxation, take a few minutes in the morning to meditate. Close your eyes and let your mind focus on taking deep, steady breaths.
- Talk to a therapist if you’re feeling depressed or distant from others. After such a major experience, returning home can bring with it any number of emotions. A therapist can help you talk through and understand them, providing solutions to any stress or anxiety you may be feeling. Even if you think it’s unnecessary, therapy can unearth thoughts and feelings you didn’t know you held, making it easier to cope and adjust.
- If you studied abroad for school, therapy is often included in your university fees, so make sure to schedule an appointment with your school counselor.
EditRemembering Your Experience
- Decorate your space with trinkets and photos. Photos of your adventure and small, meaningful objects can bring your room to life and make your return more pleasant. Put out items like statues, rugs, table displays, or pieces of art. Get a frame for your favorite photos, or simply tack them to your wall.
- Keep wearing your new clothes. Just because you’re home doesn’t mean you have to give up your foreign threads. Though some outfits may not work in different climates or social settings, casual clothes and accessories like scarves, hats, and buttons can help you live the culture a little bit every day.
- If your trip was a life-changing one, consider getting a tattoo to commemorate it. Symbols, foreign script, and meaningful pictures can be a great way to memorialize your journey.
- Stay in touch with foreign friends. Thanks to the Internet, leaving a country doesn’t mean leaving your friends behind. Keep in touch on Facebook, Instagram, and other social media apps. For those you’re really close to, stay connected through private chats, texts, or messaging apps like Snapchat.
- Share your stories of life abroad. Though you may have returned home, sharing your memories will keep your experiences alive and fresh. Try starting a blog or YouTube channel talking about your journey, or simply tell your friends about it. The more you share, the greater impact your knowledge and stories can have on the world.
- Search for web forums and groups on Facebook related to travel. Members are often receptive to new stories and can offer advice on dealing with culture shock.
EditMoving on with Life
- Connect with your family and friends. After an experience abroad, it may feel like the entire world has changed. Your family and close friends can help ground you after returning, their love and kindness showing that the important things in life don’t disappear. Though your relationships may be different, with some friends moving away or changing their social circles, focus on the things that haven’t changed while you’re still adjusting.
- You don’t need to connect with all your friends immediately. Take a few days to relax before seeking people out.
- Avoid parties and welcome home events. Seeing all your friends at once can be nice, but smaller events and one-on-ones will keep you from becoming overwhelmed.
- Pick up old hobbies. Life abroad can be busy, especially if you traveled for school or work. Returning home gives you a chance to take your old hobbies off the backburner and enjoy them with new eyes.
- For creative hobbies like painting and writing, use your experiences abroad to try out new styles, methods, and subject matters.
- For games or sports, look for cultural influences you never noticed before, like Japanese references in video games or regional differences in sports equipment.
- Join a club or group. It’s easy to become isolated after such a long time away. A great way to combat this is by joining a local club. If you were part of a group before leaving, see when the next meeting is and let them know you’re coming. If you need to find one, search online for groups based around specific interests like board games or books.
- For college students, check your campus website for a list of clubs and when they meet.
- If you miss your time abroad, look for clubs focused on foreign art or culture.
- Set a new life goal. Think about what made your time abroad so wonderful. It could be the faster or slower speed of life, the different customs, or the fact that it was something new and exciting. Make a new, concrete goal with this mind, like taking a foreign studies class, writing a book, finding a new job, or saving enough money to travel again. Having something specific to plan for will keep you excited and engaged moving forward.
- Don’t talk negatively about your home life or culture. Focus on the positive instead of casting a negative light on anything from home.
EditSources and Citations
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Need to build an emergency shelter in the snow? Do you intend to camp out in the snow on a ski trek? Or are you trying to build the best snow fort your town has ever seen? Just want to relax? No matter what your reason is, make sure you follow each step carefully so your snow cave won’t collapse on top of you. If you’re willing to put in a few hours of hard work, and the snow conditions are right, you can make a snow cave to be proud of.
EditSelecting a Spot and Preparing
- Avoid areas of rockfall or windy slopes. Take care not to dig a snow cave under the path of a potential avalanche or rockfall. Slopes with the wind blowing against them could be dangerous if you are staying overnight, as blowing snow could clog the entrance tunnel and block access to the outside air.
- Find an area with deep snow. If you can find a snowdrift at least five feet (1.5m) deep, a lot of your work will be done for you. Look for areas where the wind has blown the snow against a slope. Keep in mind you’ll also need an area large enough to house however many people you have. A ten foot (3 m) diameter cave is comfortable for two or three people.
- Test the consistency of the snow. Light, powdery snow may be difficult to work with, and is more likely to collapse. Fortunately, snow tends to harden once disturbed, so if you have the time to pile it up and wait for it to harden, you will likely still be able to form it into a snow cave.
- If conditions aren’t right, consider a trench instead. If you are in an emergency situation, one alternative is to dig a trench in the snow and use a tarp to cover it. Prop the tarp up with ski poles or branches stuck in the snow. This is easier and faster to dig, but will not provide the same warmth as a snow cave, and could become buried in a snowstorm.
- Check that you have the clothing and equipment you need. Warm, waterproof clothing is essential if you are out in the wilderness. Consider removing one or two dry under-layers of clothing before you begin working so you have something to change into if your clothing gets wet while digging. As for equipment, a compact snow shovel or two will make the snow cave’s construction much easier. A non-smoke-producing light source is useful for overnight stays, but a candle or other small flame source can be used if you remember to create a ventilation hole.
- Ventilation holes are described further on in this article.
- Find a friend to help. Having at least two people build a cave together is highly recommended. Keep one person outside of the cave with a spare shovel at all times. This way, if the cave collapses during the digging, the person on the outside can shovel away the snow to rescue the person trapped inside.
EditHollowing Out the Cave
- Work slowly but methodically. Work in shifts if you have more than one person, and take breaks for eating and drinking. Working slowly but efficiently, without breaking a sweat, will keep you warmer and safer than trying to rush the job. Sweating can cause heat loss, which increases the risk of hypothermia.
- Pile up the snow if necessary. Unless the snowdrifts in your area are deep enough already, you’ll need to shovel the snow into a pile at least five feet (1.5m) tall, and large enough to fit the number of people it will be sheltering.
- A quick way to pile up snow is to find a short slope and use your shovel to push the snowdrift down to the base of the slope. Beware of taller slopes with additional snowdrifts higher up, however, as your snow cave could be buried in an avalanche.
- Pack the snow firmly. Pack the snow pile or snowdrift by stomping on it with snowshoes or laying a plywood board over it and stomping on that. If the snow is light and powdery, you may wish to pack it down several times as you create the snow pile, in addition to a final pack when the pile is tall enough.
- Allow two or more hours for the cold air to harden your snow pile. This makes the snow firmer and will reduce the risk of the cave from collapsing in on you while you dig it out. Waiting at least two hours is recommended, and you may need to wait up to 24 hours if the snow is powdery and dry.
- Dig a tunnel into the snow. If you made a snow pile, dig a tunnel easily wide enough to crawl through and several feet deep, sloping upward. If you are digging into a deep snowdrift, dig a trench 5 or more feet down for you to stand in, then dig a tunnel at the base of the trench. You may find this easier if you have a compact snow shovel, available at backpacking or mountaineering stores.
- If you are building a snow cave for fun and don’t mind taking extra time, you can avoid some discomfort by digging a “doorway” several feet tall instead of a tunnel. Once you’ve completed the snow cave, wall up most of the doorway with additional snow, leaving a tunnel to exit through.
- Stick ski poles or branches into the snow pile as a guideline. Stick these objects about 12–18 inches (30–46cm) into the snow pile. While digging out the snow cave from the inside, stop when you encounter these objects. Without this guideline, you may accidentally dig the ceiling too thin and expose your snow cave to the elements, or even cause a collapse.
- Hollow out the dome of the cave. Shovel snow from the center of the pile or snowdrift out through your tunnel. Once you’ve hollowed out enough room for your whole body at the end of the tunnel, you can stay there and use your feet to push the snow through the tunnel.Make sure the ceiling of the snow cave remains at least 1 foot (0.3m) thick to minimize the chance of collapse. The sides should be several inches (8 or more cm) thicker than the ceiling.
- Try to make the floor of the cave higher than the entrance. This will keep the sleeping area warm as the cold air gathers in the entrance tunnel.
EditFinishing the Cave
- In freezing temperatures, strengthen the cave by pouring water over the outside. If the temperature is below freezing and you have water to spare, pour water over the outside of the cave. This will freeze into ice and create a sturdier structure.
- Never pour water over the cave if the temperature is above freezing.
- Smooth the inside roof and walls to prevent dripping. Scrape the walls and roof of the cave to make it smooth. Irregular, bumpy surfaces will drip water onto the cave floor, instead of directing water down the walls to gather around the edges.
- If dripping is still a problem, carve grooves leading down the walls.
- Mark the outside of the cave. Use brightly colored gear or conspicuously placed branches to mark the edge of your cave. This may help people find the cave again, and stop them from walking on the roof and causing a collapse.
- If you are in an emergency situation awaiting rescue, make sure the gear is visible from the air, not hidden underneath trees or other obstructions.
- Carve in benches and sleeping areas as needed. The higher the benches/sleeping platforms are, the better, as cold air will sink below the bench keeping you warmer. You may wish to create shelves for easier gear storage, and a trench to make sitting or standing easier.
- Create ventilation holes. Snow caves can become quite insulated from the outside air, especially if moisture from your breath creates an icy layer on the inside wall. To prevent suffocation, use a ski pole or other long object to create an angled hole or two at the slanting edge of the roof. Make sure this hole goes all the way through the roof.
- Because ventilation holes will cause some warm air to escape, you may wish to cover the hole with a snowball or other object, then remove it if the air feels stuffy or anyone feels dizzy. Remove the object before you go to sleep.
- Cover the ground with insulating material. Gather pine branches to place on the floor of the cave, to slow the escape of warmth through the ground. Sleep on camping pads, but be aware that inflatable pads may not keep you warm in cold weather.
- Move your shovels inside. While staying in the cave, always make sure you have shovels inside with you so you can dig yourself out in case of collapse or a blocked entrance. Shovel the entrance out regularly during a blizzard.
- If too much warm air is escaping through the entrance, block it with a backpack or other easily removed object. Do not wall yourself up.This will also help you hide from animals such as mountain lions and bears.
- If the snow is not easy to pack and you have a large group, several smaller caves may be faster to create than one large cave.
- If water from melting snow is dripping, compact it with more snow.
- The roof can collapse at any time, so make sure you have an escape plan.
- If you plan to sleep several days in your snow cave, make sure to scrape an inch or two of melted snow off of the walls after each night. This keeps the snow porous and lets moisture escape to the outside instead of gathering inside the cave and soaking the people inside.
- Building a snow cave is hard work. Be sure to have others to help share the load and have one person in charge of preparing energy-rich, hot food to supply the working team with.
- Always leave the entrance uncovered if you have a candle or other flame. Even using a small cooking stove or candle can be lethal, as it can lead to a buildup of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is only slightly lighter than air, and small ceiling air holes may not be enough to vent the gas.
- Building a fire or running a stove inside is not recommended, as it uses up oxygen and produces dangerous gas. It can also cause the snow to melt, then freeze into a layer of ice. This traps moisture in the cave, soaking the inhabitants.
EditThings You’ll Need
- Snow (Best if easy to mold and shape)
- Large snow shovel
- Hand shovel or trowel
- One or more assistants
- Ice axe/pick (optional)
EditSources and Citations
- How to Build an Igloo — and Other Show Shelters, by Norbert E. Yankielun, W.W. Norton and Co.. New York, 2007.
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This wikiHow teaches you how to copy a folder in Google Drive by creating copies of files in a new folder on the Google Drive website or by copying the folder in the Backup and Sync app on your PC or Mac computer. You can also use an Add-On in Google Sheets to make copies of folders on your Google Drive account.
EditCopying Files to a New Folder
- Go to https://drive.google.com in a web browser. If you’re signed in with your Google account, this will load the contents of your Google Drive.
- Click Go to Google Drive and sign in to your Google account if you aren’t logged in automatically.
- Double-click the folder you want to copy. Double-click the folder you want to copy to open it.
- Select all the documents. Scroll to the bottom of the contents of the folder and press on Windows, or press on Mac. This will select all the files in the folder.
- Make sure you have only files selected, and not folders. If you have any folders selected you’ll need to deselect them.
- Right-click on any file and select . This will make a copy of each of the files you selected previously. Each copy will be named with “Copy of…” in front of the original filename.
- On a Mac with a trackpad or a magic mouse, you can click on a folder with two fingers, or you can hold and click instead of performing a right-click.
- Right-click on any of the selected files and click . This opens a pop-up menu.
- Navigate to the location you want to create a new folder. Click the to out of the folder you’re currently in and select the location you want to create the duplicate folder in.
- Click the New Folder icon. It’s the folder icon with a “+” on it in the bottom-right of the pop-up menu.
- Type a new folder name and click . You can name the folder exactly the same as the original folder, or you can name it something different. Clicking the checkmark button creates the new folder with the name you entered.
- Click . This moves the selected files to the new folder you created. Now you have a copy of a folder containing the same files.
EditUsing the Backup & Sync App
- Install Backup & Sync. If you haven’t already, go to https://drive.google.com and download the Backup & Sync app on your Windows or Mac computer:
- Click .
- Click Download Backup & Sync.
- Click Download under “Personal”.
- Click Agree & Continue.
- Sync your Google Drive to your computer. In the Backup & Sync settings, make sure you sync everything in your Google Drive to your computer.
- If you’re syncing your Google Drive to your computer for the first time, you’ll have to wait for the sync to complete which can take some time depending on the size of your Google Drive.
- Go the Google Drive folder on your computer. On Windows, you may have a shortcut to your Google Drive folder on your desktop, otherwise, you can open File Explorer and select Google Drive from the “Quick access” menu on the left. On Mac, you open a new finder window and select Google Drive from the “Favorites” section on the left.
- Select the folder you want to make a copy of. Click the folder you want to make a copy of in your Google Drive folder.
- Copy the folder. On Windows, click the Home tab at the top of the Explorer window and click the Copy button. On Mac, click the Edit menu at the top of your screen and select Copy “Folder”. Or you can use the following keyboard shortcuts:
- Paste the folder. On Windows, in the Home tab at the top of the Explorer window and click the Paste button. On Mac, click the Edit menu at the top of your screen and select Paste Item. Or you can use the following keyboard shortcuts:
- Wait for Backup & Sync to sync the new folder. After you create the copied folder on your computer, Backup & Sync will detect the new folder and upload it to your Google Drive.
EditUsing a Google Sheets Add-On
- Go to https://sheets.google.com in a web browser.
- Click to open a new blanks spreadsheet.
- Click the . It’s in the menu at the top of the page.
- Click .
- Type in the search bar and press .
- Click next to the “Copy Folder” add-on. It’s the app with a dark blue image, and two light blue folders.
- Click . This installs the add-on to your Google Sheet document.
- Click . It’s in the menu at the top of the page.
- Select . This will connect to your Google Drive account.
- Click .
- Click . This is the option you have to click even though you will be selecting a folder.
- Select the folder you want to copy.
- Click . When folder is finished copying, it will appear in your Google spreadsheet.
- You can enter a prefix or a suffix to appear before or after the copied folder name, to distinguish it from the original.
- Go to your Google Drive. Go to https://drive.google.com in a new browser tab and you will see your newly copied folder.
If you’ve spilled oil on your clothes, carpet, or upholstery, you may think the item is ruined. Luckily, it can be easily removed using a few household items. Whether the fabric came into contact with motor oil, cooking oil, butter, salad dressing, mayonnaise, petroleum jelly, makeup, deodorant, or another oil-based product, and regardless of whether the stain is fresh or set in, your fabric will come clean in no time.
- Blot as much oil as possible from the item. As soon as the spill occurs, use paper towels to blot up as much oil as possible from the garment. Don’t rub the fabric, which would cause the oil to spread.
- Check the garment care tag. Before treating the stain, read the care tag on the item. If the item is dry clean only, take it to the cleaners as soon as possible. Otherwise, find out if the garment can be laundered normally or if it needs to be hand washed and laid flat or hung up to dry. Take note of the temperature requirements as well as adjust your stain-removing strategy as needed.
- For instance, if your item says to wash in cold water only, use cold water rather than hot in the following steps.
- Apply powder to the stain and let it sit for 30 minutes. You can use baby powder, baking soda, talcum powder, cornstarch, or waterless mechanic’s soap to further remove the oil from the fabric. Sprinkle the powder over the oil and let it sit for 30 minutes to absorb as much oil as possible. Then, use a spoon to scrape the oil and powder off the garment.
- Alternatively, you could rub plain white chalk over the spot to absorb the oil.
- Scrub the stain with soap and water. Rinse the item with hot water, then apply a few drops of regular dish soap to the stain. Scrub the soap into the fabric with a toothbrush, then rinse it with hot water.
- The dish soap can be clear or colored, just make sure it doesn’t have added moisturizers.
- As an alternative to dish soap, you could use shampoo, laundry soap, or aloe vera gel instead.
- Wash the garment by itself. As long as your garment is machine washable, you can pop it in the washing machine and launder it as usual. Follow the instructions on the care tag to determine the hottest water temperature the fabric can take. If the item is delicate, hand wash it.
- If your fabric is delicate, use a gentle detergent.
- Air dry the garment if the stain remains. Before putting the garment in the dryer, check to see if the stain is gone. You may need to let the item air dry so you can inspect the fabric when it’s dry. If you put the item in the dryer and the stain isn’t gone, the heat will set it into the fabric.
- Be sure to air dry any delicate fabrics rather than putting them in the dryer.
- Remove a stubborn stain with hairspray or WD-40. If you let the item air dry and still notice a stain, or if the stain is older and has set in, you can still remove it from your clothing. Spritz hairspray or WD-40 onto the stained fabric. Let it sit for 20 minutes, then launder the item as usual.
- Although WD-40 is an oil, it works by “reactivating” set-in stains so they can be easily removed by laundering.
- Don’t use WD-40 on delicate fabrics.
EditCleaning Upholstery or Carpet
- Soak up the excess oil. Use an old towel or paper towel to blot up as much of the oil as you can. Avoid rubbing the towel into the fabric, which could spread the stain.
- Sprinkle the area with powder and let it sit for 15 minutes. Use baking soda, talcum powder, baby powder, or cornstarch to soak up the oil. Just sprinkle it on the stain and let it sit for 15 minutes.
- Scrape away the powder and repeat if necessary. Use a spoon to scrape away the powder or vacuum it up. If oil is still visible on the fabric, add fresh powder to the area and let it sit for 15 minutes. Then, scrape it away with a spoon or vacuum it up.
- Blot the stain with soapy water or solvent. Mix of cool water and of dish soap in a bowl or bucket. Dip a clean rag into the soapy water and use it to blot the stain. Keep blotting until the stain is gone.
- Alternatively, you could use dry cleaning solvent or Lestoil in place of the soapy water. Be sure to test it on an inconspicuous area of the fabric first.
- Remove the soap with a clean, damp sponge. Wet a clean sponge with cool water. Press it to the stained area to remove the soap, solvent, or Lestoil and any remaining oil.
- Soak up the excess liquid then allow the fabric to dry. Blot the wet spot with a clean towel to absorb as much liquid as possible. Then, allow the fabric to air dry.
EditThings You’ll Need
- Paper towels
- Baby powder, baking soda, talcum powder, cornstarch, or waterless mechanic’s soap
- Dish soap, shampoo, laundry soap, or aloe vera gel
- Old toothbrush
- Laundry detergent
- WD-40 or hairspray
EditCleaning Upholstery or Carpet
- Old towels or paper towels
- Cornstarch, baking soda, talcum powder, or baby powder
- Spoon or vacuum
- Soap and water, dry cleaning solvent, or Lestoil
- Clean rag
EditSources and Citations
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